Solar cables and wires play an important role in any electrical system, including solar systems. They link circuit components and act as a channel via which electricity flows. If you’re new to photovoltaic systems, grasping the fundamentals of solar wires and connections is critical.
Solar panels are often scaled on the roof or a high building to avoid impediments. Solar energy is captured and converted into useful electrical current by these panels. Solar wires and cables carry useable electric power generated by solar energy to electrical devices.
A well-planned and well-built network of solar cables and wires ensures that a PV system operates safely and optimally. PV wiring design necessitates the proper usage of solar wires and cables.
How Do Solar Wires Function?
The solar wire is often formed of a conductive substance capable of transferring electricity, such as copper. Copper is the most frequently used material for solar cables.
However, aluminum wires are sometimes used. Each solar wire is a solitary conductor that works independently. Multiple wires are connected to boost the efficacy of the cable system.
The solar wire can be solid (visible) or insulated by a ‘jacket’ (protective layer which renders it invisible).
There Are Two Types Of Wires
Single wires and Solid wires.
These are both utilized in solar applications.
Stranded wires, on the other hand, are the most prevalent because they are made up of numerous small wire sets that are all twisted together to create the core of the wire. Single wires with a stronger odor are only available in tiny gauges.
Stranded wires are the most often used for PV cables because they are more stable. This protects the wire’s structural integrity when subjected to pressure from vibrations and other motions.
For example, if birds start shaking or gnawing on the wires on the rooftop where the solar panels are installed, you will need extra protection to guarantee that the power continues to flow.
Differences In Size When Using A 12v Solar Panel Cable
Different wire diameters are required for various solar systems. Varying elements of a solar system may require different sizes as well. We have mentioned the 12v solar panel wire size below:
A 12 gauge AWG wire is typically required for solar power. However, because the size varies based on resistance and flow, you must first establish the amps to decide which size you want.
The American Wire Gauge is used to standardize the diameters of solar cables (AWG). Wires with higher numbers have more resistance and can only handle lesser currents.
Solar wires made of aluminum or copper are utilized in most installations.
Copper wire is significantly more conductive and can carry far more electricity than the aluminum wire of the same size. It provides greater flexibility and heat resistance.
How Should Solar Cables Be Connected?
To connect a solar system, only two core cables are required. To begin, you’ll need a red wire, normally a positive cable, and a blue cord, which is negative. These wires link the solar system’s primary generator box with the solar inverter. Smaller single-wire lines can be beneficial for energy transfer if they are insulated.
AC cables are also used in various solar systems, albeit less commonly. Most AC cables are needed to link the primary solar inverter to the home’s electric grid.
Solar systems use 5-core AC cables with three wires for the current phases, one wire to restrict the current from the device, and one wire for grounding/safety that links the solar shell to the earth.
Trusting on the size of the solar system, 3-core cables may be sufficient. However, this is never uniform across the board since various states have different standards that require the specialists installing the wires to obey.
Recognizing Cable Terminology
The voltage shows your solar panel’s potential electric energy per unit charge. The peak power voltage of your solar panel is measured in volts and watts and is denoted as voltage maximum power or VMP.
Index of Voltage Drop
A decrease in voltage results in a loss of power (V=IR), and an inadequate wire might cause this decrease. A voltage drop index is used to express this.
Maximum And Rated Current
The flow of electrical current between electrical circuits is measured in amps. The rated current is the maximum current that may be taken in continuous usage without diminishing the solar panel’s lifetime.
Cable Size Calculator
When you buy a DIY solar kit, you’ll discover that it has virtually everything you need. However, with most equipment, there is a formula for determining what size cable you require.You’ll find the computation straightforward even if you’re not a natural mathematician. Amps = Watt / Volt is the formula.
How Does the Formula Work?
The methodology is the same whether you’re installing solar panels on a boat or the roof of your house. You can calculate amperage if you know the watts and voltage of your system.
Based on a 2% voltage loss, the amps will determine the minimum AWG cable size to employ. In this situation, you already know that the voltage is 12V. To calculate the amps, divide the wattage of your solar panel by the voltage.
Why Are Amps Important?
A cable gauge of 10 to 14 is often required. However, 14 gauge solar wire can only take 15 amps. Furthermore, many solar panels require a larger amp.
A 12 AWG cable could be your best choice when unsure about the amps.
This is because a 12 AWG wire has a 20 amp capability with a 2% voltage drop.
Length of the Cable
After determining the amps, you may select the optimum gauge. However, choosing the appropriate cable is much more than just the diameter. Length is also important.
This is because the voltage loss increases with the length of the cable. It would be best if you accounted for this in your calculations. Longer lines may not always be possible in tight quarters, such as when putting solar panels on a vehicle.
Why Is Cable Size Important?
Every wire gauge (AWG) has a maximum current limit that the cable may withstand before being damaged. It is important to select the appropriate size, so the wire does not overheat.
Risk of Overheating
Solar panels convert sun energy into electrical current. A solar panel, like a battery, contains positive and negative terminals. Furthermore, current flows from the negative to the positive terminal.
Wires then carry this current to your electrical appliances. If a strong current is sent through them, there is a risk of overheating from too much energy. Undersized wires and cables violate the National Electric Code in several areas.